Walking Royal Paths in London: Buckingham Palace, the White Tower, and Shakespeare’s Globe Theater

London is a city that embraces the medieval and the modern. The White Tower, or as we know it, the Tower of London, stands as a proud legacy of England’s history amid the sparkling silver skyscrapers of London’s financial district. We stayed in South Kennsington within walking distance of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Harrods’s Department Store, and the legendary Buckingham Palace, home of Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II.

Usually, you can only visit the outside of Buckingham Palace. The palace opens the rooms which are used for events involving foreign dignitaries only for a few weeks during the summer when Her Majesty is at her summer residence, Balmoral, in Scotland. We just happened to be there the first day the palace was open for visitors. We were able to see the Queen’s Mews where the carriages and horses are kept. The gold carriage is the most ornate as it was built in the 1700s and the one used to carry monarchs to their coronation, but the glass carriage is the one that caught my attention. The glass carriage is the one that famously carried Lady Diana Spenser to her wedding to Prince Charles. I remember watching that wedding on the TV when I was in middle school. I remember being a Diana fan, angry with Charles for cheating on her, and crying as I watched her funeral years later. It was an incredible treat to see the glass carriage used in her wedding.

The Gold Carriage used for coronations since the 1700s. It is infamous for being an uncomfortable ride.

As we continued to the rooms open for visitors, I was in awe of the sheer opulence of the palace. As a fan of the arts, I was fascinated by the long hallway hung with paintings of the masters. Her Majesty’s art collection is stunning. What was even more intriguing was the museum aspect of the palace. Queen Victoria’s presence is infused into Buckingham palace. Although the original house was completed in 1705, and the palace renovated by George III and IV, Queen Victoria was the first monarch to live there. Her throne is still there. Many people do not know that Queen Victoria was an artist, and you can still see her sketchbooks on display at the palace. Even a couple of her gowns and some of her jewels have been carefully preserved. Queen Victoria is remembered as one of Great Britain’s greatest monarchs with an entire era named after her, the Victorian Era. Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, is her great, great, granddaughter, while Prince Charles and Prince William continue the royal line. The history of Great Britain’s monarchs and traditions is infused into every fiber of the palace. Walking through Buckingham Palace is not just about royal opulence. Every part of it weaves the story of the royal family and Great Britain through time.

The inside courtyard at Buckingham Palace. You might have seen this part of the palace in The Crown.

Our next stop on our royal journey was St. Paul’s Cathedral. St. Paul’s has existed for centuries, but was raided by Henry VIII for any treasures it possessed, mistreated during the Civil war, and finally lost in the Great fire of 1666. Sir Christopher Wren was tasked with rebuilding it, and in 1711, it was finally declared finished. Sir Christopher Wren’s architecture is unique and beautiful even to my untrained eyes. St. Paul’s is a huge cathedral with a choir area, a baptismal font and a lengthy black and white checkered floor. It has some characteristics of Roman Catholic cathedrals, but it is not. It is a main cathedral of the Church of England. It is distinctive in that it does not have the statuary and colorful paintings that are common to the Roman tradition. Instead, the beauty is built into modern embellishments that are cleanly elegant. The cream colored masonry is embellished with an almost simple geometric elegance. This is the cathedral where Admiral Nelson who was killed in the Battle of Trafalgar is entombed and memorialized. This is where many of Great Britain’s military heroes are buried and remembered. In the lower level of the cathedral all around Nelson’s tomb, were smaller tombs and memorials all with poppies laid nearby in remembrance. Great Britain has had her share of wars. The wars, and those who served Queen and country are remembered. In addition to being full of war memorials, St. Paul’s has been a place of celebration. Queen Elizabeth II has had two jubilee celebrations at St. Paul’s. Diana and Charles were married there. As I walked down the long black and white checkered aisle towards the choir and the altar, I have to admit that I felt a thrill realizing that I was walking the same steps Diana did on her wedding day. For a moment, I turned into a middle school girl and I wanted to squeal! (I restrained myself with some effort.) My excitement received an eye-roll from Jim, but I think the Diana fans out there will understand.

The baptismal font in St. Paul’s Cathedral. Princess Diana walked this path when she married Prince Charles.

We continued our historical and literary tour by going to the Tower of London, this time going back in time long before Queen Elizabeth II. As a fan of the British Royals, and British literature, I have always wanted to visit the Tower. For me, understanding British history is crucial to understanding British literature. Besides, the real stories of royals and the Tower are better than fiction. Seriously, writers couldn’t make up better or more intriguing stories than those of the War of the Roses and the Tudor monarchs!

The White Tower, or the Tower of London from the side

The White Tower, or Tower of London, was commissioned by William the Conqueror, and was under construction 1075. It initially served as a stronghold. During its centuries of history, it has been a royal residence, a prison, and a place to keep the royal jewels. The Tower is a fortress comprised of several buildings with a green in the middle. Much of what would have been needed to survive during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance could be produced within the fortress walls as it more like a small village rather than a lone building.

The Tower is also a place of intrigue. There is small marker in a staircase doorway which was at the heart of a classic, ages old, “who dun it”. The marker is where the two sons of Elizabeth Woodville and Edward IV, brothers of Elizabeth of York, and the rightful heirs to the throne, were believed to have been imprisoned and killed. Historical mystery ensued. Who did it? Richard III Plantagenet, who is famously vilified by Shakespeare, may have ordered the boys’ deaths, or perhaps it was his wife, Queen Consort Anne Neville. The children were taken from Elizabeth Woodville, the widow Queen, and her daughter, Elizabeth of York, and conveniently disappeared in the Tower under the care of Richard III in 1483. Richard then claimed the crown as Richard III even though he was considered a usurper by many.

Skeletons of two children were discovered in box at the bottom of an enclosed, unused stairwell when the Tower was under renovation in 1674. Were they the skeletons of the princes? We may never know for certain, but historians believe that they might very well be, and King Charles had them buried at Westminster. Whatever the case, Richard III was later killed in battle by Henry VII, who then married Elizabeth of York joining the houses of York and Lancaster, ending the War of the Roses and starting the intriguing Tudor reign. Today, the old staircase and entrance are open with a small sign designating that this is where the Princes in the Tower are believed to have been found.

The Tower has become most famous as a prison during the Tudor period. Jim and I got to see the infamous “Water Gate” or “Traitor’s Gate”, the gate to the fortress that was used to bring high ranking prisoners by water during the reign of the Tudor monarchs. Jim and stood on the green where Ann Boleyn, and her younger cousin, Catherine Howard, two of the six wives of Henry VIII, were beheaded. Interesting that although Anne Boleyn was was seen as a homewrecker, and called a whore by the English people for her displacement of Good Queen Katherine of Aragon, it seems sentiment has changed. There is a memorial on the green where Anne, and other high ranking nobles were executed, almost as an apology. There is a small marker in the nearby chapel where she is buried near the altar. Later, Henry VIII’s daughter, Elizabeth I, was brought through the Water Gate when her sister, the Catholic Mary Tudor, known as Bloody Mary, and her advisors thought the Protestant Princess Elizabeth was plotting against her in the 1500s. Elizabeth succeeded the throne after her sister Mary, and used the Tower as a prison as well. When you tour the Tower, you can still see the etchings by the people who were kept as prisoners. Some of the people must have had a long stay at the Tower as the etchings are often intricate.

Standing on the spot where Ann Boleyn was beheaded on the green within the Tower of London. There is a memorial to those who were executed here.

Today, the Tower is used to house Her Majesty’s royal jewels. The crowns still used today as well as the crowns, orbs and scepters from previous monarchs are housed there. All the golden tableware used for a monarch’s coronation is also kept there. Many Americans think Hollywood or the women on the Housewives shows are glamorous. They have nothing on Her Majesty, Elizabeth II. The jewels within the crowns and scepters are beyond any dreams I could imagine. When visiting the crown jewels in the Tower, people are asked to get on a people mover, or conveyor belt that moves people along the eye popping row of spectacular jewels. You won’t see any pictures of the crown jewels here as photos and videos of the crown jewels are strictly prohibited. The jewels are the private property of Her Majesty the Queen, so she is entitled to make the rules. Jim and I adhered to that rule because we believe we must honor the rules, customs, and traditions of the people and places we visit. We were told by one of the men who was a Beefeater, that all who work in the Tower are military or retired military, and many of them live in the fortress. Hence, it would be a bad idea to even think about stealing any of the Queen’s jewels. Again, I felt surrounded by history. As we viewed the Tower from across the Thames later, it seems a castle standing regal in a forest of modern silver skyscrapers. That is London, a celebration of tradition, old and new.

After we toured the Tower of London, we walked across Tower Bridge to the New Globe Theater to see a production of Shakespeare’s Henry IV. Theater was popular during the Tudor monarchies, particularly during the Elizabethan Period. Elizabeth I, and her successor, King James Stuart, of King James Bible fame, were patrons of Shakespeare. The New Globe Theater is built very near the original Globe, and even nearer to the the remains of the competing Rose Theater. It was strange experience to walk down the street to see a large marker in an apartment parking lot to designate the place where the original Globe stood. We had dinner at the Swan, which is within the theater. It is a theater in the round open to the sky in the middle. There are no microphones that we could see at the Globe. It was an incredible experience as a lover of all things Shakespeare and Elizabeth I to see a play at the New Globe. If you visit London, the New Globe Theater is a must. The play was at times poignant, and sometimes funny. I found it fascinating that there was much gender bending within the roles. Falstaff, for example, was played by a woman. Prince Hal and Hotspur were also played by women. Why not? During the Elizabethan period, all the roles, even the female roles, were played by men. Interesting take on that tradition.

The stage of the New Globe Theater which is built down the street from the original Globe where Shakespeare worked his magic.
At the New Globe Theater, you can get inexpensive tickets as a groundling just as in Shakespeare’s Day. In this picture groundings are waiting for the show to begin. For an extra expense, you can get a seat in the stands. You will want to rent a cushion as the wooden benches are hard on the arse.

London is a tapestry of people, history, and some of the best stories. Explore! Go see where real stories took place and history happened. God save the Queen!

Shakespeare’s Globe Theater from the Outside

Greenwich and Great Britain’s Maritime History

In an earlier post, I wrote that I have a love of history stemming from my studies in literature and music and the history surrounding the arts. The arts have certainly influenced me, but long before I went to college, my father, Daniel Barton, was my first influence. He loves a good story, and historical adventures. He is a treasure trove of British and American naval history and raised my sister and I on sailboats. Understanding the history of Great Britain, particularly England, means understanding naval history. The British have always been a nation of sailors. It is their skill in sailing and naval warfare that propelled them to the position of being a world power with Elizabeth I’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

The British went on to colonize and influence much of the world. Tea, spices and textiles, were much sought after as luxury goods. Natural resources such as lumber provided a means of continuing Britain’s shipbuilding industry. Britain’s colonial history is complicated, messy, and controversial, especially in places such as India and Africa. Not all those who were colonized wanted or needed to be colonized, and colonization has had long lasting implications. When I visited India and London, I observed a very complicated relationship between modern Indians and the English. The Indian people saw the English colonization through the East Indian Tea Company as an affront to their ancient culture and traditions. Still, I noticed in India that the English tradition of tea time in the mornings and afternoons is observed, only with chai tea and English shortbread cookies. In London, Indian restaurants are bountiful and Indian spices are frequently used. It makes me wonder, who influenced who?

Aside from colonial controversy, I inherited an appreciation of all things related to boats from my father. I simply had to go to either Greenwich or Portsmouth when Jim and I visited London. Dad voted for Portsmouth, but Greenwich is just a short boat ride down the Thames from London. Jim and I took the Underground from our hotel in South Kensington, not far from Buckingham Palace and Harrods’s, to Westminster Pier. We boarded a boat from the pier and enjoyed views of London from the water while listening to a tour guide’s description of how the Thames has played a part in London shipping and trading as well as stories about the buildings we passed.

Once we got to Greenwich, it was a short walk to the National Maritime Museum and the Royal Observatory. The National Maritime Museum and Royal Observatory lie at opposite ends of a large park. The end of the park that houses the Royal Observatory is on a hill overlooking the town of Greenwich. In dry dock by the National Maritime Museum is the most fascinating attraction for those who love ships, the Cutty Sark, the famous clipper ship whose likeness decorates bottles of Cutty Sark Scotch. The Cutty Sark was part of the tea trade, and later, the Australian wool trade. She is the last surviving clipper ship of England’s glory days in the tea trade. She was built in 1869, and spent a few years sailing trade routes before she and her sister clipper ships were superseded by steam ships that could use the Suez canal for a shorter route East. Like other clipper ships, she was built with taller masts, a slimmer hull and a whole lot of sail in order to sail faster. She was the racer of her day, and the pinnacle of clipper design. Today, she is preserved in dry dock, masts standing tall and proud, with docents ready to tell stories of her adventures of sailing to Asia and back again. Boxes of tea are aboard with placards to explain how the tea trade worked. The Cutty Sark is raised, and there is a cafe below her, so you can see her gleaming hull. Fascinating!

At the wheel of the Cutty Sark. What I wouldn’t give to have stood here when she was under sail.
The hull of the great ship and the cafe underneath her.
The Cutty Sark, the last remaining clipper ship

We went on to the National Maritime Museum near Cutty Sark’s dry dock which included much of Great Britain’s proud naval history. An entire room was dedicated to Lord Nelson’s death aboard the Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. It also included a barge from the reign of the Hanover Kings. As a music scholar, I remember the stories about George I and his court composer George Frederick Handel floating down the Thames on barges while Handel’s orchestra performed his famous composition, Water Music. The barge in the museum had been preserved much as it would have been in 1717 when Water Music first debuted.

Tourists reading about the barge the Hanover Kings used for leisurely travels down the Thames. It was on a barge such as this one the composer Handel debuted his timeless Water Music for George I.

After the National Maritime Museum, we walked out through the park to the village of Greenwich. The section of Greenwich near the park looks exactly like what I pictured an old English town to look like with quaint old storefronts and pubs, so Jim and I stopped at an old pub for a pint and a plate of meats, cheeses and bread.

After our break, we went back to the park and hiked the hill to the Royal Observatory. If you have ever been a sailor, or been aboard a ship, you may have heard the term, Greenwich Mean Time. If you have, that means that Greenwich keeps time for the world. It is 0 time. If you have ever heard of the Primer Meridian, it is here. We get our time standards from Greenwich. The astronomers who were appointed by the reigning monarch stayed here with their families and not only studied the stars, but explored new ways to aid navigation.

During our time in Greenwich, I wished my father was with us. As an old salt with time in the United States Coast Guard, time as First mate aboard the Halve Maen, the replica of Henry Hudson’s ship that explored the Hudson River in 1609, and many, many days of sailing our own family sloops ranging from 12 to 40 feet, he understands navigation far better than I do, or ever will. I love to write and I love history and music, but math was always my nemesis. I won’t attempt any more than the most elementary explanation of navigation and what we saw at the royal Observatory here. Suffice it to say that in order to figure out where they were with more precision, mariners needed to time how far they were from Greenwich. Every hour they sailed away from Greenwich equaled 15 degrees longitude on the charts. This is modern longitude. Problem was, not only only did they need clocks which were precise, but which could also withstand the motion of the ships and ocean. A prize was offered for the invention of a maritime clock that could keep accurate time even aboard a rocking (and sometimes rolling) wooden ship. Trust me. I’ve been aboard the Haeve Maen. Those wooden ships do rock and roll. John Harrison puzzled over 5 variations of his maritime chronometer until one worked. He finally was awarded some prize money from George III before his death in 1776. You can still see his chronometers, or maritime clocks, when you visit the Royal Observatory. They are exquisite time pieces, beautifully fashioned unlike anything clock makers produce today. There are placards and docents available to explain navigation and the part that the clock played as navigation aids.

My husband, Jim, standing on the Prime Meridian. One foot on the Southern Hemisphere, and one foot on the Northern Hemisphere.
Part of the old Royal Observatory in the front with the modern observatory in the back.

After we spent the day between the National Maritime Museum and the Royal Observatory, we decided to head back to London. My advice is to get right back on the boat to Westminster Pier. Yes, you can take the Underground, but we couldn’t find a station nearby and ended up walking for the better part of an hour through places that were not as pretty as the park or the section where we had lunch to finally get to one. The boat is a far easier and more pleasant option, even if it is a little more expensive.

For the mariners in your life, Greenwich is a must. Visiting the Cutty Sark, the National Maritime Museum, and the Royal Observatory sheds light on Britain’s proud maritime tradition.

The masts of the Cutty Sark.